The title of the article is not very glamorous, but it describes the changes I made to the project after the block processing and before the inline processing. From a project completeness viewpoint, all the block elements were done except for table blocks and link reference definitions, and those were temporarily shelved. The big decision before me was whether to plow ahead with inline processing or take some time to clean things up before continuing.
After weighing the options in my head for a while, I decided to take some time to tidy up my work on my PyScan script and document it in this article. Part of that decision was based on the time of year (it was the holiday season) and the other part of the decision was based on timing for the PyMarkdown project. At this point, the blocks were mostly finished, and the inline processing was the next feature to be implemented. To me, it just made good sense to clean up the PyScan tool, write an article or two on it, and refactor some of the PyMarkdown project before moving forward with inline processing.
What Is the Audience For This Article?¶
While detailed more eloquently in this article, my goal for this technical article is to focus on the reasoning behind my solutions, rather that the solutions themselves. For a full record of the solutions presented in this article, please go to this project’s GitHub repository and consult the commits between 20 December 2019 and 31 January 2020.
Refactor #1: Extracting Function Groups¶
The first things that I wanted to refactor were the generic helper functions used for
parsing and the helper functions used for dealing with HTML. While the parsing helper
functions were already at the end of the
tokenized_markdown.py file, it made sense to
move the HTML helper functions down to the same location at the end of the file. Once
that was accomplished, it took me about 2 milliseconds to figure out that they should
be in their own modules. Hence, the parsing helper functions were moved out into the
parser_helper.py file and the HTML helper functions were moved out into the
Along the way, proper unit tests were added for these functions. As part of the normal
process of parsing the Markdown document, they had been battle tested by their usage,
but having their own dedicated unit tests was the right thing to do. The unit tests
for the parsing helper functions were all added with filenames that are the string
test_ followed by the name of the distinct function that they test. As the HTML
helper functions more tightly coupled that the parser functions, I kept their unit
tests coupled by added all of them to the
This refactoring was performed to reduce the complexity and maintenance of the main module. By moving these functions to well-defined modules of their own, I instantly found that it was easy to find functions in either module, instead of search for them at the end of the main file. For me, that feedback is always a good sign that the refactor was the right thing to do.
Refactor #2: Reducing Complexity with is_character_at_index_one_of¶
As I was looking through the code for the previous refactoring, I noticed that there
were a few functions that were “too big”. From experience, I find that these
types of functions usually have more than one responsibility, and reducing those
responsibilities reduces their complexity. The first example of this that I found was
is_fenced_code_block function, which included the following series of lines:
if ( (len(extracted_whitespace) <= 3 or skip_whitespace_check) and start_index < len(line_to_parse) and (line_to_parse[start_index] == "~" or line_to_parse[start_index] == "`") ):
While the first two lines were specific to the function, the last two lines followed a
pattern that happened again and again in that module. Because those last two lines are
really checking to see if the next character is one of the two values, I extracted
that logic into a new
is_character_at_index_one_of function for the
module, and added tests into
This refactoring had a noticeable impact on the complexity of each of the modules that
used the new function. This impact was a reduction in the number of branches in each
function, with each count decreasing by one for each character to look for. As an
is_fenced_code_block code above went from the snippet above to the
if ( len(extracted_whitespace) <= 3 or skip_whitespace_check ) and ParserHelper.is_character_at_index_one_of( line_to_parse, start_index, self.fenced_code_block_start_characters ):
That is a reduction from 5 branches down to 3 branches, making that function and that
module less complex in the process. In addition, instead of reading those two lines
and trying to figure out what they are doing, the function call to the
is_character_at_index_one_of function eliminates the “what is it doing” step, making
it easier for someone reading the code to understand those lines.
Refactor #3: Simplifying The close_open_blocks Function¶
This refactoring was a simple one, but for me it had a noticeable impact on helping
me get a clearer understanding of the function. Prior to the change, the
close_open_blocks function had 2 distinct responsibilities: determine if the element
on the top of the stack needed to be closed, and if so, remove that element from the
top and close the block. While I was able to read the function and use it properly,
I often had a little question in my head about whether I was using the
After the refactoring, the code containing the first responsibility remained in the
close_open_blocks function and the code for the second responsibility was placed in
remove_top_element_from_stack function. When I looked at those two functions
during the writing of this article, I was able to see a very clear picture of what each
function is doing, with clear delineations of those responsibilities. The
close_open_blocks implements a while loop with 4 distinct ways to exit out of the
loop, and the
remove_top_element_from_stack function remove the top element, adding
the appropriate tokens to the document’s token stream. Clear and concise, hence easy
This function is core to the processing of the blocks and making it clearer was important to me. While it was a small refactor, it increased my confidence that the function, and any functions that called it, were operating properly. I believe that my confidence increased because it went from one “messy” function to two separate functions with very clear intentions. By rewriting the code into two functions and keeping each function simple, the messiness vanished.
Refactor #4: Cleaning Up the determine_html_block_type Function¶
I will admit, the next candidate, the
determine_html_block_type function was a mess.
At 88 lines long and 24 branches, it was clearly a function with too many
responsibilities. Like the work documented in the previous section, I started to
take a look at this function and try and figure out what it was doing. When I finished,
I came away with three responsibilities that the function was performing:
handling the special case (html block types 1 to 5), handling the normal cases (html
block types 6 and 7), and some cleaning up of the results for html block type 7. That
was two responsibilities too many.
Similar to the work above, the
determine_html_block_type function was
broken up along the identified lines of responsibility. The
check_for_special_html_blocks function was created to handle the special cases, the
check_for_normal_html_blocks function was created to handle the normal cases, and the
determine_html_block_type function contained orchestration logic for calling those
two functions, plus the special cleaning up for the html block type 7 logic.
While this function is not as core to the parser as the
its refactoring had a similar effect. Each of the added functions contained a single
responsibility, this making the usage of all three functions together easy to determine.
For me, that was good progress.
Refactor #4: Clearing PyLint warnings¶
During the writing of this article, the first thought that came to mind when writing this section was that I should be ashamed that it took me until this point to address the PyLint warnings on the project. Taking a bit of a deeper look into how I felt about this, I believe it had to do with where I draw the line between “just playing around” and “real code”. For me, I believe this transition is when a project moves from a Proof-Of-Concept project to a Real™ project. I am not 100% sure, but I believe that it was at this point, give or take a couple of days, that I felt that this was a real project. While it is hard to pin down why, I believe that having the block section of the specification done helped my mind crystalize that the project is going to happen. It was as if someone had whispered “This is going to happen” in my ear, and that I needed to tidy things up. Once I figured that out, it just felt like a natural transition, nothing to be ashamed about.
Now that this was a Real™ project, I needed to ensure that any PyLint
warnings were addressed or suppressed. While I prefer to address these issues, some of
the warnings, such as the
too-many-arguments warning, occupy one of my grey areas.
with parsers, a lot of state information needs to be passed around, to ensure the
parsing is performed properly. This often results in functions that take too many
arguments. At this stage of the project, I decided to suppress those warnings, with a
too-many-locals warnings until later in the project, when I have a better
sense of how to optimize those function calls for this parser.
This refactoring helped me remember an adage a friend taught me about software: “It isn’t if there is a problem with your code, it is a question of how often the problems within your code occur.” More of a realist than a pessimist, he figured that each line of code brought a new set of issues and bugs with it, and it was our job to discover and handle those issues that our users would find before they found them. For me, it was a good refresher in humility when developing software.
Refactor #5: Reducing Complexity with the \at_index\ Functions¶
Ever since the section above on parser functions, I had been slowly searching for other patterns that I could refactor. In the process, I found a group of patterns that were not complex, but would benefit from a small refactor. Basically, a refactoring of that pattern wouldn’t make a lot of difference in reducing the number of branches, but it would reduce the complexity of the functions by making them easier to read.
The group of patterns that I found all centered around finding out whether a
character or a string was at a given location in the string. Specifically, the parser
contained three of these patterns that I felt were worth extracting into their own
is_character_at_index_not. None of these functions would facilitate a large
improvement, but the change from the following text:
if ( start_index < len(line_to_parse) and ( line_to_parse[start_index] >= "0" and line_to_parse[start_index] <= "9" ) ):
to this text:
if ( ParserHelper.is_character_at_index_one_of( line_to_parse, start_index, string.digits ):
produces more readable code by simply stating the intent of those lines, instead of leaving the reader to interpret them.
While I admit that it was not a big change, to me this refactoring provided some extra confidence that the project was getting to a cleaner place. Sometimes refactoring produces big, measurable impacts, and sometimes they produce little ripples that are barely noticeable. However, sometimes those little ripples can mean a lot, and worth a lot.
Refactor #6: Increasing Code Coverage¶
After a few of these parsing refactors, I noticed that the PyScan numbers for code coverage were in the high nineties, which is very good for a number of projects. However, in a project that was designed from the ground up for high code coverage numbers, such as the PyMarkdown project, there is almost always room to do a bit better.
In the case of the implementation of the HTML blocks, I implemented defensive programming to try to ensure that edge cases were protected against. In re-reading the HTML block specification a couple of times, the focus of the specification seemed to be focused on the main use cases, not the edge cases. As such, the code coverage report gave me good input on how to add 4 new use cases that helped ensure that the edge cases for HTML blocks were fully covered.
This type of refactoring is a difficult one for me to justify to some people, but I feel strongly about it. The justification centers around what level of code coverage is considered “good enough”. For myself, there are 2 main factors that weigh into my decision on what is good enough with code quality: was the project designed with testing in mind and what is the effort required to address the next issue. In this case, as minimal effort was required to add the 4 simple scenario tests to address the issue, I would easily argue that it was not good enough. From my point of view, the small cost easily justified the benefit.
Refactor #7: Translating Token Strings to Actual Tokens¶
Having made the jump in my head from a Proof-of-Concept project to a Real™ project, I decided it was time to change the stack tokens and Markdown tokens from simple text strings to actual token objects. Up to this point, I was more concerned that the tokens looked right in the output stream, and there were only relatively few cases where that output needed to be interrogated later. With inline processing on the horizon, which would heavily make use of token content, it made sense to me to undergo this change before the inline processing started.
The two places where I had made this tradeoff were the stack tokens and the Markdown document tokens. The stack tokens denote where in the processing the parser is and the Markdown document tokens denote what was found during the processing. In both cases, it was more important to me to see the right patterns being parsed than to tie them down to a given structure. Based on experience, I wanted to do the least possible work to get to this point, and then have the structure for each object emerge.
StackToken object, the structure that emerged was simple. Each class
is responsible for any of it’s own variables, but also for providing a read-only, text
version of these variables, assigned to the base class’s
extra_data variable. In this
way, the base class can include a number of the useful functions without requiring any
knowledge about the child classes. By implementing the
generate_close_token in this way, each child class was kept very simple and
straightforward. In addition, instead of using Python’s
isinstance function to figure
out the type of token, I added
is_* methods for each token type to make the code
referencing the tokens more readable.
The refactoring for the
MarkdownToken object was almost the same as for the
StackToken object, but with a couple
of key differences. With the
StackToken, the token itself was the focus of the
object, whereas with the
MarkdownToken, it is the data contained within the token
that is key. The other big difference is that
MarkdownToken objects are the artifacts
that will be consumed and analyzed by the PyMarkdown project, not just an internal
representation. As I had a lot of positive success with the design and use of the
StackToken class, I modelled the
MarkdownToken class in a similar fashion, keeping
in mind the differences and altering the design to properly accommodate them. From a
design point of view, things did not change things that much, but I needed to make sure
those objects look and function right, as they are very visible.
This refactor was a long time coming, but I felt that it was the right time to do it. As I mentioned in previous sections, the project felt more like a Real™ project and not a proof of concept. With a good bulk of the parsing completed, and with a solid opinion of how I was going to orchestrate the remaining pieces, it was the right time to nail down how those tokens would look to users of the project. While I could have done that earlier in the project, I believe that I would not have been able to do so with the same confidence that I made the right choice. For this project, I believe that leaving the tokens in the raw form to this point was the best move possible.
Refactor #8: Consolidating Text Blocks¶
Of all the refactors that I have talked about in this article, this refactor was the one that I really needed to do. Inline processing addresses the group of features that expand on Markdown text within the blocks, and a lot of those processes assume that the text within their blocks is one long string to process. Currently, the text tokens were distinct and disjoint, each one added in the order they were processed. To get ready for inline processing, those text tokens needed to be consolidated.
There were two possible paths to take to accomplish this: deal with the processing as
the text tokens were added or deal with them in a subsequent processing step. As I want
to keep the processing logic as simple as possible, I decided that a follow-up step to
consolidate those tokens was the best course of action. To accommodate this change, I
coalesce_text_blocks function to simply go through the document tokens,
look for 2 text tokens beside each other, and append the second token’s text to the
first token. Then, in the
transform function, instead of just returning the results
parse_blocks_pass function, those results were passed to the
coalesce_text_blocks and those were returned.
While this change was a relatively small change, it impacted the token output for a lot of the test cases. In a meaningful way, that impact increased my confidence that tackling it was the right choice to complete before inline processing started. The impact of the change on the test cases validated that it was a far-reaching change, one that was better to have happen before the next stage of processing.
What Was My Experience So Far?¶
Unlike the other articles in this series, this article was about how I took a bit of a breather and focused on improving the quality of the PyMarkdown project. As the next set of features involves inline processing of text blocks, I believe whole heartedly that taking that break to focus on refactoring increased my confidence that I was on the right track with the parser.
Why do I feel that way?
Looking into the near future, I know that inline processing will increase the complexity to the project, and any effort to reduce the project’s complexity ahead of that will directly help reduce the complexity of the inline processing. Further into the future, there are extensions to Markdown that I will need to add that will also increase the complexity of the project. Add to that my plans to comply with other Markdown specifications, such as the CommonMark specification, which will also increase the complexity.
Why refactor? I want to keep the project simple and uncomplicated. From a software quality point of view, each refactor makes the project simpler and more uncomplicated. While some of the changes did not move the needle on the software quality meter much, each change helps.
In the end, I refactor projects to keep them simple. As Einstein said:
Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.
What is Next?¶
Having teased the addition of inline processing to the project for most of this article, the next article will be on the implementation of the first 3 aspects of inline processing that I tackled.
So what do you think? Did I miss something? Is any part unclear? Leave your comments below.